July 31, 2012

Concerning physiological defence mechanisms

No comments:
An enzyme found in tears and saliva is known to damage bacterial cell walls. It does this by:

a) dissolving the cytoplasmic membrane
b) breaking the covalent links between teichoic acid and muramic acid
c) hydrolyzing the link between N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl muramic acid
d) inhibiting cell wall protein synthesis
e) converting D-alanine to L-alanine

July 30, 2012

Concerning innervation of the face

No comments:
A dental surgeon carries out a block of the inferior alveolar nerve by infiltrating local anaesthetic at the mandibular foramen. Which clinical feature may result from this procedure?

a) Numbness of the lower lip on the injected side
b) Ineffective block for the incisor teeth
c) Numbness of the side of the tongue
d) Inability of the patient to clench his jaws
e) Transient weakness of the facial muscles on the injected side

Adrenal gland and its hormones

No comments:
The Adrenal glands describe the paired organs, each of which sits on the two kidneys. They are very vital for the normal functioning of the body.

The human adrenals comprise of two layers - the outer cortex and the inner medulla - which together secrete several hormones.

Below are mnemonics to aid memory for these layers and hormones.

July 29, 2012

Concerning features of Rheumatic fever

No comments:
A young girl is suspected of having an acute attack of Rheumatic fever. During the acute phase of Rheumatic fever the characteristic inflammatory lesions found in the heart are known as:

a) Ferruginous bodies
b) Foamy macrophages
c) Aschoff bodies
d) Granuloma
e) Streptococcal laden macrophages

July 28, 2012

A player with an acute left flank pain

No comments:
Following an American football training session, a player experienced an acute left flank pain that lasted 4 to 5 hours and was accompanied by macroscopic hematuria and marked tenderness in the left costovertebral angle. A large mass was palpable in the left loin.

Investigation demonstrated proteinuria and a rapid deterioration in renal function. An intravenous pyelogram was obtained, and it showed marked enlargement of the left kidney with poor visualization of pelvocalyceal system.

The most likely diagnosis is:

a) polycystic disease of the kidneys
b) Berger's nephritis
c) systemic lupus erythematosus
d) renal vein thrombosis
e) Goodpasture's syndrome

July 27, 2012

Concerning chest disorders

No comments:
A 50 year old woman visits a general practitioner because of a feeling of breathlessness (dyspnoea), especially on climbing the stairs to her house. She has never smoked in her life. On examination, the physician finds a central cyanosis, and the following is a photo of her hands.

On auscultation of her lungs, crepitations are heard bilaterally over the lower zones posteriorly, and there is increased tactile vocal fremitus.

A chest X-ray is requested. The most likely finding on this Chest X-Ray is:

a) consolidation
b) pneumothorax
c) pleural effusion
d) coin lesion
e) emphysema

Hormones produced by the Ovary and Testis

No comments:
The Ovaries are extremely essential components of the female reproductive organ. They are the two female reproductive organs that produce eggs and, in vertebrates, also produce the sex hormones.

A mnemonic for recalling these hormones is - Ovaries are RIPE with hormones:
  • Relaxin,
  • Inhibin,
  • Progesterone, and
  • Estrogen.

July 26, 2012

A 15 year old concerned about his penile size

No comments:
A 15 year old is concerned about the size of his penis. He says his penis is too short and is teased about this at the gym. On examination he is noted to have delayed sexual development. He is also found to have a lack of normal smell.

Investigations reveal a gonadotropin deficiency, although the serum luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels are normal.

The most likely diagnosis is:

a) testicular dysgenesis
b) Kallmann's syndrome
c) congenital adrenal hyperplasia
d) constitutional delay
e) craniopharyngioma

Concerning bony disorders

No comments:
A 54 year old man presents with a symmetrical distal arthopathy. On examination he has finger clubbing and a symmetrical arthropathy. Radiography demonstrates visible periosteal new bone formation over the diaphyses of his metacarpals and phalanges.

These features are a recognised complication of:

a) juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
b) scleroderma
c) epidermolysis bullosa
d) bronchial carcinoma
e) infectious mononucleosis

July 25, 2012

Concerning protein synthesis

No comments:
Protein synthesis is the process whereby DNA encodes for the production of amino acids and proteins. In this process what is a unit of three nucleotides on the mRNA called?

a) ribozyme
b) antiribozyme
c) base-pair
d) codon
e) anticodon

July 24, 2012

Concerning hormones

No comments:
A 17 year old patient has had two episodes of severe hypoglycemia. He is being investigated for a possible insulinoma but is also suspected of factitious (self-medication) insulin-induced hypoglycemia by injection of insulin. His plasma insulin levels are elevated.

Which of the following is most likely to help in confirming self-induced hypoglycemia?

Exams of the RCP(UK) - MRCP 1, MRCP 2 and PACES

1 comment:
The three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom - made up of the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow - develop, deliver and oversee the exam for the Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)).

FDA warnings on use of Simvastatin

No comments:
Last year, on 8th June 2011, the United State's Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released new warnings about the dangers of high-dose simvastatin, which affects many people. The release also included new warnings about dosing and drug interactions. This article aims to remind us of this warning each time we prescribe this drug.

Simvastatin is a very popular statin, and a generic. It is on all the pharmacy plans. The price point is right and prescribing is hassle free. In 2010, an estimated 2.1 million patients in the USA alone, were prescribed a product containing 80mg simvastatin. Can you imagine how many would have been on it worldwide?

July 23, 2012

Concerning receptors and innervation

No comments:
Which receptor is innervated by nerves that combine with the vagus nerve?

a) Carotid sinus receptors
b) Aortic arch receptors
c) Central chemoreceptors
d) Pulmonary artery receptors
e) Atrial receptors

July 22, 2012

WHO Guideline on Use of Antiretrovirals by HIV-Negative People At High Risk To Prevent Infection

No comments:
WHO'S FIRST EVER GUIDANCE ON ARV USE FOR INFECTION PREVENTION

On 20th July 2012, the WHO issued its first ever guidance to countries that are considering offering HIV medications, known as antiretrovirals (ARVs), to protect people who do not have the virus but who are at high risk of HIV infection.

July 17, 2012

HIV-prevention drug Truvada approved by FDA

No comments:
US health regulators have for the first time approved a drug to prevent HIV infection.

People living with HIV take antiviral medications to control the HIV infection. Now, for the first time, Truvada can be used by adults who do not have HIV but are at high risk of infection and anyone who may engage in sexual activity with HIV-infected partners, said the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

The FDA approved the new use of Truvada — to be taken once daily and used in combination with safer sex practices — to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 infection in adults who do not have HIV but are at high risk of becoming infected. (HIV-1 is the most common form of HIV.)

Fellowship Opportunities in Applied Anatomy and Physiology

No comments:
USA FELLOWSHIP OPPORTUNITIES (MASTERS & DOCTORAL)

The Department of Health Sciences at Boston University College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College offers graduate teaching fellowships (TF) to qualified candidates pursuing the Masters of Sciences (MS) and PhD in Applied Anatomy and Physiology.

July 16, 2012

Accredited Pharmacy Internship Training Centers in Nigeria - 2 (cont'd)

No comments:
INTERNSHIP TRAINING CENTERS

The Pharmacists Council of Nigeria (PCN) is a statutory organ of the Federal Government of Nigeria, set up pursuant to decree 91 of 1992 under the supervision of the Federal Ministry of Health for the purpose of the regulation and control of practice of Pharmacy, determining professional standards in Pharmacy and securing the establishment and maintenance of registers of Pharmacists.

July 15, 2012

Accredited Pharmacy Internship Training Centers in Nigeria

No comments:
INTERNSHIP TRAINING CENTERS

The Pharmacists Council of Nigeria (PCN) is a statutory organ of the Federal Government of Nigeria, set up pursuant to decree 91 of 1992 under the supervision of the Federal Ministry of Health for the purpose of the regulation and control of practice of Pharmacy, determining professional standards in Pharmacy and securing the establishment and maintenance of registers of Pharmacists.

Approved Medical Internship Training Centers in Nigeria

9 comments:
List of Hospitals in Nigeria Approved by the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria, MDCN, for Internship (Pre-Registration) Training (with number of approved posts)

HOSPITALS                                                    MEDICAL    DENTAL    TOTAL
  
ABIA STATE
1. Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba          60                    -           60
2. Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia                             24                    -           24

West African College of Physicians: 2-Day Mandatory Course in Medical Ethics for Resident Doctors

No comments:
COURSES AND CONFERENCES

The West African College of Physicians (WACP) announces its Two Day Mandatory Course In Medical Ethics for all Resident Doctors taking the part 1 examination of the College. Subsequently the course will take place once a year just before the part I revision course.

National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria: 13th Annual Scientific Conference and All Fellows Congress

No comments:
COURSES AND CONFERENCES

The National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria (NPMCN) is happy to announce its thirteenth Annual Scientific Conference and All Fellows Congress for the fellows of its College for the year 2012.